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Gunpowder is the first physical explosive and propellant. Before its invention, many incendiary and burning devices had been used, including Greek fire. The invention of gunpowder is usually attributed to experimentation in Chinese alchemy by Taoists in the pursuit of immortality, and is popularly listed as one of the " Four Great Inventions " of China.
It was invented during the late Tang dynasty 9th century but the earliest record of a written formula appeared in the Song dynasty 11th century. Knowledge of gunpowder spread rapidly throughout the Old World possibly as a result of the Mongol conquests during the 13th century, with the earliest written formula for it outside of China contained within the Opus Majusa treatise by the English friar Roger Bacon. It this web page employed in warfare to some effect from at least the 12th century in weapons such as fire arrows paddy power matched deposit, bombsand the fire lance before the appearance of the gun.
While the fire lance was eventually supplanted by the gun, other gunpowder weapons such as rockets continued to see use in China, Korea, India, and eventually Europe. Bombs too never ceased to develop and continued to progress into the modern day as grenadesminesand other explosive implements.
Gunpowder has also been used for non-military purposes such paddy power matched deposit fireworks for entertainment, or in explosives for mining and tunneling. The evolution of guns led to the development of artillery during paddy power matched deposit 15th century, pioneered by states such as the Duchy of Paddy power matched deposit. Firearms came to dominate early modern warfare in Europe by the 17th century.
The gradual improvement of cannons firing heavier rounds for a greater impact against fortifications led to the invention of the star fort and the bastion in paddy power matched deposit Western worldwhere traditional city walls and castles were no longer suitable for defense.
The use of gunpowder technology also spread throughout the Islamic world and to IndiaKoreaand Japan. The use of gunpowder in warfare during the course of the 19th century diminished due to the invention of smokeless powder.
Gunpowder is often referred to today as " black paddy power matched deposit " to distinguish it from the propellant used in contemporary firearms.
The next possible reference to gunpowder appeared in the year during the Jin dynasty paddy power matched deposit The "Inner Chapters" on Taoism contains records of his experiments with heated saltpeter, pine resin, and charcoal among other carbon materials, resulting in explosion, which most historians acknowledge as an early form of gunpowder.
The earliest surviving chemical formula of gunpowder dates to in the form of the military manual Wujing Zongyaoalso known in English as the Complete Essentials for the Military Classicswhich contains a collection online casino where can win money factoids on Chinese weaponry.
These numerous types of gunpowder paddy power matched deposit styling various names such as "flying incendiary club for subjugating demons," "caltrop fire ball," "ten-thousand fire flying sand magic bomb," "big bees nest," "burning http://bonus-ohne-einzahlung.info/casino-con-bonus-gratuito-senza-deposito.php fierce paddy power matched deposit unstoppable bomb," "fire bricks" which released "flying swallows," "flying rats," "fire birds," and "fire oxen" eventually gave way and coalesced into a smaller number of dominant types, notably gunpowder arrows, bombs, and guns.
This was probably because some weapons were deemed too onerous or ineffective to deploy. One of the first, if not the first of these weapons was the fire arrow. One surviving source circa lists all the artisans working paddy power matched deposit Kaifeng while another notes that in the imperial court sentgunpowder arrows to one garrison andto another. The Money casino apps real people of Manchuria united under Wanyan Aguda and established their own Jin dynasty in Allying with the Song, they rapidly rose to the forefront of East Asian powers and defeated the Liao dynasty in a surprisingly short span of time, destroying the year balance of power between the Song, Liao, and Western Xia.
In the east, the fragile Song-Jin alliance broke as the Jin saw that the Song army was unable to even defeat the Liao garrisons and fulfill their end of the alliance in capturing the Liao Southern Capital.
Realizing the weakness of Song, Jin grew tired of waiting and captured all five of the Liao capitals themselves, proceeding to make war on Song, initiating the Jin-Song Wars. For the first time, two major powers would have access to equally formidable gunpowder weapons, ushering in the Gunpowder Age in earnest. Many fled, screaming in fright. Jin troops withdrew with a ransom of Song silk and treasure, but returned several months later, this time with their own gunpowder bombs manufactured by captured Song click. The Jin assault lasted day and night without respite, using siege carts, fire carts, and sky paddy power matched deposit, but each assault was met with Song soldiers who "resisted at each occasion, and also used molten paddy power matched deposit bombs.
Wherever the gunpowder touched, everything would disintegrate without a trace. Song established another capital in modern Hangzhou and the Jin forces followed.
The fighting that ensued would see the first proto-gun, the fire lancein action. There is some minor evidence of this based on an artistic depiction of it in the form of a silk banner painting slightly predating the Wujing Zongyao showing a demon pointing what appears to be a fire lance at the Buddha, trying to disturb his meditation. From below and above the defensive structures they emerged and attacked with fire lances, striking lances, and hooked sickles, each in turn.
Pulling their bamboo ropes, they [the porters] ended up drawing the sky bridge back in an anxious and urgent rush, going about fifty paces before stopping. The sky bridges were also set fire to with incendiary bundles of grass and firewood. Li Heng, the Jin commander, decided to lift the siege and Jin forces were driven back with severe casualties. They were used to defend mobile trebuchets that hurled fire bombs. Gunpowder technology also spread to naval warfare and in Song decreed that all warships were to be fitted with trebuchets link hurling gunpowder bombs.
The Song commander "ordered that gunpowder arrows be shot from all sides, and paddy power matched deposit they struck, flames and smoke rose up in swirls, setting fire to several hundred vessels. The Song used fire arrows, paddy power matched deposit bombs, and thunderclap bombs.
Fire arrows and bombs were used to destroy Jin trebuchets. The thunderclap bombs were online gambling on Jin soldiers themselves, causing foot soldiers paddy power matched deposit horsemen to panic and retreat. The enemy cavalry was terrified and ran away. In a rare occurrence, the Song made a successful offensive free online games freeslots Jin forces, and conducted a night assault using boats.
They were loaded with gunpowder arrows, thunderclap bombs, a thousand crossbowmen, five hundred infantry, and a hundred drummers. Jin troops were surprised in their encampment while asleep by loud drumming, followed by an onslaught of crossbow bolts, and then thunderclap bombs, which caused a panic of such magnitude that they were unable to even saddle themselves and trampled over each other trying to get away.
Two to three thousand Jin troops were slaughtered along with eight to nine hundred horses. Then everything changed when the Jin dynasty attacked, with even better bombs. Traditionally the inspiration for the development of the iron bomb is ascribed to the tale of a fox hunter named Casino bob Li. According to the story, around the year Iron Li developed a new method paddy power matched deposit hunting foxes which used a ceramic explosive to scare foxes into his nets.
The explosive consisted of a ceramic bottle with a mouth, stuffed with gunpowder, and attached with a fuse. Explosive and net were placed at strategic points of places such as watering holes frequented by foxes, and when they got near enough, Iron Li would light the fuse, causing the ceramic bottle to explode and scaring the frightened foxes right into his nets. Qizhou was a major fortress city situated near the Yangtze and a 25 thousand strong Jin army advanced on it in News of the approaching army reached Zhao Yurong in Qizhou, and despite being outnumbered nearly eight to one, he decided to hold the city.
While the formula for gunpowder had become potent enough to consider the Song bombs to be true explosives, they were unable to match the explosive http://bonus-ohne-einzahlung.info/nieuwe-online-casino-mei-2017.php of the Jin iron bombs. Yurong describes the uneven exchange thus, "The barbaric enemy attacked the Northwest Tower with an unceasing flow of catapult projectiles from thirteen catapults.
Each catapult shot was followed by an iron fire bomb [catapult shot], whose sound was like thunder. Paddy power matched deposit day, the city soldiers in facing the catapult shots showed great courage as they maneuvered click to see more own] catapults, hindered by injuries from the iron fire bombs.
Their heads, their eyes, their cheeks were continue reading to bits, and only one half [of the face] was left. Some said there was a traitor. If not, how would they have known the way to strike at both of these places?
Within four weeks all four gates were under heavy bombardment. Finally the Jin made a frontal assault on the paddy power matched deposit and scaled them, after which followed a merciless paddy power matched deposit for soldiers, officers, and officials of every level.
Zhao managed an escape by clambering over the battlement and making a hasty retreat across the river, but his family remained paddy power matched deposit the city.
Upon returning at a later date to search the ruins, he found that the "bones and skeletons were so mixed paddy power matched deposit that there was no way to tell who was who. The Mongols and their rise in world history as well as conflicts with both the Jin and Song played a key role in the evolution of gunpowder technology.
Unfortunately textual evidence for this is scant as the Mongols left few documents. On the opposite side stand historians such as Tonio Andrade and Stephen Haw, who believe that the Mongol Empire not only used gunpowder weapons but deserves the moniker "the first gunpowder empire. The first concerted Mongol invasion of Jin occurred in and total conquest paddy power matched deposit not accomplished until In paddy power matched deposit Mongols besieged the Jin capital of Kaifeng and deployed gunpowder weapons along with other more conventional siege techniques such as building stockades, watchtowers, trenches, guardhouses, and forcing Chinese captives to paddy power matched deposit supplies and fill moats.
Whenever the [Mongol] troops encountered one, several men at a time paddy power matched deposit be turned into ashes. That is how it is able to kill people and horses from far away. Heaven-shaking-thunder bombs, also known as thunder crash bombs, were utilized prior to the siege in when a Jin general made use of them paddy power matched deposit destroying a Mongol warship, but during the siege the Mongols responded by protecting themselves with elaborate screens of thick cowhide.
This was effective enough for workers to get right up to the walls to undermine their foundations and excavate protective niches. Jin defenders countered by tying iron cords and casino for mac canada online them to heaven-shaking-thunder bombs, which were lowered down the walls until they reached the place where online casino annual report miners worked.
The protective leather screens were unable to withstand click the following article explosion, and were penetrated, killing the excavators.
The History of Jin provides a detailed description: Stuff it with willow charcoal, iron fragments, magnet ends, sulfur, white arsenic [probably an error that should mean saltpeter], and other ingredients, and put a fuse to the end.
In some cases Jin troops still fought with some success, scoring isolated victories such as when a Jin commander more info fire lancers against a Mongol encampment, which was "completely routed, and three thousand five hundred were paddy power matched deposit. The Mongol war machine moved south and in attacked the Song city of Anfeng modern ShouxianAnhui Province "using gunpowder bombs [huo pao] to burn paddy power matched deposit [defensive] towers.
By the mid 13th paddy power matched deposit, gunpowder weapons had become central to the Song war effort. In the Song official Li Zengbo was dispatched to inspect frontier city arsenals. Li considered an ideal city arsenal to include several hundred thousand iron bombshells, and also its own production facility to produce at least a couple thousand a month. The results of his tour of the paddy power matched deposit were severely disappointing and in one arsenal he found "no more than 85 iron bomb-shells, large and small, 95 fire-arrows, and fire-lances.
This is not sufficient for a mere hundred men, let alone a thousand, to use against an attack by the The government supposedly wants to make preparations for the defense of its fortified cities, and to furnish them with military supplies against the enemy yet this is all they give us.
What resulted was one of the longest sieges the world had ever known, lasting from to For the first three years the Song defenders had been can play blackjack online money to receive supplies and reinforcements by water, but in the Mongols set up a full blockade with a formidable navy of their own, isolating the two cities.
The Two Zhangs commanded a hundred paddle paddy power matched deposit casino deposit low paypal, travelling by night under the light of lantern fire, but were discovered early on by a Mongol commander. When the Song fleet arrived near the cities, they found the Mongol fleet to have spread themselves out along the entire width of the Yangtze with "vessels spread out, filling the entire surface of the river, and there was no gap for them to enter.
A large number of men died trying to cut through chains, paddy power matched deposit up stakes, and hurl bombs, while Song marines paddy power matched deposit hand to hand using large axes, and according to the Mongol record, "on their ships they were up to paddy power matched deposit ankles in blood.
These new siege weapons had the capability of throwing larger missiles further than the previous traction trebuchets. One account records, "when the machinery went off the noise shook heaven and earth; every thing that [the missile] hit was broken and destroyed. The next major battle to feature gunpowder weapons was during a campaign led by the Mongol general Bayan, who commanded an army of around two hundred thousand, consisting of mostly Chinese soldiers.
It was http://bonus-ohne-einzahlung.info/online-casino-builders.php the largest army the Mongols had ever utilized. Such check this out army was still unable to successfully storm Song city walls, as seen in the Siege of Shayang.
Thus Bayan waited for the wind to change to a northerly course before ordering paddy power matched deposit artillerists read more begin bombarding the city with molten metal bombs, which caused such a fire that "the buildings were burned up and the smoke and flames rose up to heaven.
History of gunpowder - Wikipedia Paddy power matched deposit
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